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Current Space Weather

SDO-NASA and the [AIA, EVE, and/or HMI] consortium.   Primer on Space Weather

Current Sunspot Activity
Current Sun

Sunspots last 30 days

Sunspot graph courtesy: Newquay Weather

Current Sunspots
Solar Storms

Solar Radiation Solar Radiation Storms: The Proton Flux shows the last 3 days of data for the most dangerous part of a Solar Storm; Solar Radiation.

Note the left side Particles value of 101 through 105 MeV for the red band, and the duration of the storm. Match with the
Solar Radiation Storm column in the scale.
Solar Storm Index Radio Blackouts: This plot shows the last 3 days of Solar X-ray values for the part of Solar Storms causing radio blackouts.

Note the left side (W/m2) of 10-5 through 10-2 and note the right side M or X. Match with Radio Blackouts column in the
scale.  Affected Freqs

eg. An Xray Flux of 10-3 in the X20 range (very top plot w/out a value in the right side) is indicative of an EXTREME (R5) event-radio blackout on the entire sunlit side of Earth lasting for a number of hours.

Geomagnetic Storm Index Geomagnetic Storms This plot shows Geomagnetic Storm strength. Note the left side Kp value of 5 through 9 (<5 not an event) and duration. Match with the Geomagnetic Storm column in the scale.

eg. A Kp 7 event is a STRONG (G3) event-HF radio may be intermittent, and aurora have been seen as low as Illinois and Oregon.
Direction, Angle, and Magnitude of the Solar Wind can be determined using the dials below.

Real Time Auroral Oval and Magnetopause

Real Time Earth's bow Shock and Magnetopause Real time data from the ACE spacecraft (top two panels) are used to predict the shape and location of these boundaries at the present time and into the near future (The time is Universal Time as measured at Greenwich, England.

In the figure to the right, the Earth is in the center, and is illuminated from the left by the Sun (not shown). In this view, we are looking down upon the North pole; thus the figure represents the equatorial plane. The solar wind emanating from the Sun is super-magnetosonic with respect to the Earth, so that a shock wave is formed. As the solar wind flows through the shock it is slowed down, and the pressure of the solar wind is balanced by the pressure from the Earth's magnetic field. The boundary at which this pressure balance is achieved is called the magnetopause.

The ACE spacecraft monitors the solar wind from a position about 200 Earth radii (RE) sunward of the Earth. The real time solar wind data from this spacecraft allows us to predict what will happen at the Earth many minutes before the solar wind actually reaches us. Important solar wind values obtained from the ACE observations include the z-component of the interplanetary magnetic field (Bz) measured in units of nano-Tesla, and the dynamic pressure (also called the momentum flux) of the solar wind, measured in units of nano-Pascal.

Geosynchronous orbit (where many weather and communication satellites orbit) is depicted by the green dashed circle.

This plot shows Real Time Magnetopause courtesy:
The Polar Ionospheric X-ray Imaging Experiment (PIXIE)

IMF Dials courtesy: Rice Space Institute

This plot shows the real time Aurora Forecast.

Aurora Forecast courtesy: http://helios.swpc.noaa.gov

Radio Propogation

Radio Map
IPS Space Weather

Solar Activity Monitor

The monitor in the page heading provides a textual status of X-ray activity and refers to the X-Ray Flux graph at the top of the page.
NORMAL Solar X-ray flux is quiet (<1.00e-6 W/m^2).
ACTIVE Solar X-ray flux is active (>= 1.00e-6 W/m^2).
M CLASS FLARE An M Class Solar Flare has occurred (>= 1.00e-5 W/m^2).
X CLASS FLARE An X Class Solar Flare has occurred (>= 1.00e-4 W/m^2).
MEGA FLARE An unprecedented X-ray event has occurred (>= 1.00e-3 W/m^2).

Script courtesy of: Lee from MadALwx.
Graph base code courtesy of: jpGraph.